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Landscape Design

This guide will help you get started finding resources related to plant growth, identification, care and maintenance. There are tabs for specific kinds of items. In addition, there are separate tabs for biographies and plant propagation.

Why cite sources?


When writing research papers students are often required to create a "resources used" page, or a "bibliography," or a "list of works cited." This side bar discusses what the underlying reasons are for these requirements and what some of these terms mean.

Including a list of works cited in your research paper enables anyone reading your paper to go back and check what you claim as a source for your various research points. It provides a list of resources for others to use if they found your paper interesting or useful. And it provides a means for you to give credit to authors for their ideas and work, to show clearly that you are giving credit where credit is due. This is important of course to avoid charges of plagiarism.

There are several styles used for citing sources, but the two main styles used at STCC are the Modern Language Association style (MLA) and the American Psychological Association style (APA). Other syles that you might encounter in your academic career include the Chicago Style and the Bluebook style (used mainly for legal material). Typically, a citation in just about any style will include: the author(s) name(s); the title of the resource used; the year of publication; the place of publication. If you are citing a Web site, your citation additionally will typically include the url address of the Web site, and the date you viewed the Web site.

Some definitions [all from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition]:

Bibliography: a list of works referred to in a text or consulted by the author in the production of the work.

Citation: (not from Webster's) the elements needed to identify the source of information used. Usually included in a citation is the author's name, the title of the resource, place of publishing, and year of publishing.

Plagiarism: to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own without crediting the source; to commit literary theft, to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source. You can view STCC's Academic Honesty Policy here

Resources for Citing Sources


Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association REF BF 76.7 P83 2009
The Elements of Style PE 1408 .S772 (2005)
Evidence Explained: Citing History Sources from Artifacts to Cyberspace REF D 5 .M55 2007
Pocket Style Manual. 5th Edition REF PE1408.H26 2009


In 2009, the American Psychological Association changed the format used for citing materials. The biggest issue is the addition of the digitial object identifier (doi) that has appeared on many scholarly/academic articles since 2008. The APA says that if you can't find the doi, provide the URL of the journal's home page, rather than the database from which you retrieved it.

  • BibMe Fully automated bibliography maker claims to be the easiest way to build a works cited page in MLA, APA or Chicago citation styles.
  • APA Reference Style - 7th edition 2020
    Northern Michigan University offers models that resolve your APA style questions. Substantial coverage of a variety of formats. 
  • Purdue's Online Writing Lab (OWL) saves the day.
    The folks at Purdue provide this resource based on the 6th edition of the APA manual, with examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations and more. Consult our reference copy of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, second printing for more information.
  • Zotero

 A complete system to manage your entire research process, including a system for creating lists of works cited in different styles, like MLA or APA. (Note: Zotero only works with the Mozilla browser). 

Research Tip


When accumulating the resources you will use for your paper, keep track of the information you will need to cite that resource if in fact you use it in your paper. That means, write down the information typically used in a citation (see left sidebar), for example, the author(s)' name(s), complete title of the resource, publisher, date, etc. Perhaps you can make and keep copies of the first pages of the resource, whether print or electronic, for easy citation later.

The reason for this tip is that if you don't keep good records, you may end up trying to re-locate that resource. This can be a time consuming, frustrating, and ultimately unsuccessul endeavor!

Our Plagiarism Policy

From the STCC Student Handbook:

Academic Honesty Policy (Plagiarism)

Communication of knowledge and a free exchange of ideas, two essential aspects of a college community, require a fundamental standard of honesty. Students and faculty must be able to expect that thoughts and work presented for credit are the property of the person presenting them. To safeguard these principles, it is important to clarify the rules and procedures regarding academic honesty.

1. Academic dishonesty- Students must refrain from all forms of academic dishonesty including but not limited to:

  1. Cheating on quizzes and examinations. Cheating is to act dishonestly or fraudulently in performing assignments, tests or quizzes; or to violate established or accepted rules of behavior in performing assignments, tests or quizzes.
  2. Abetting others in cheating.
  3. Appropriating other student's work.
  4. Plagiarizing written assignments. Plagiarism occurs when the creative work of another individual is imitated or used without authorization, or when the creative work of someone else is represented as one's own work. Plagiarism includes but is not limited to:
  • Making a direct copy of another's work without appropriate citation. This includes books, articles, the work of other students, and information from the World Wide Web.
  • Paraphrasing the work of another so that the essential meaning and or progression of ideas are maintained in spite of minor changes.
  • Resubmitting one's own work as new, following previous submission for credit in another class or other context.
  • Presenting work as one's own, for example, work that was produced in conjunction with others, such as another student or a tutor, without including appropriate citation.
  • Closely imitating, without citation, the creative work of another in a creative work of artistic merit.
    • It should be made clear that the continuously expanding capabilities of electronic media represent increased opportunities for plagiarism. Students should be aware that fraudulently presented material from electronic sources (such as the World Wide Web) will be treated as seriously as that from any other source.

2. Consequences of Academic Dishonesty.

  1. Faculty who find students in violation of honesty standards shall determine the appropriate response. Punishment may include dismissal and/or failing grade in the course.
  2. Faculty will report incidents of academic dishonesty and the action taken in response to them in writing to the Dean of Student Affairs.
  3. The Dean of Student Affairs may elect to pursue further action up to and including dismissal from the College.

Students who believe themselves to be unjustly accused or punished for academic honesty violations may pursue the matter through the College grievance procedure.

When to Cite? Quoting, Paraphrasing, & Summarizing

This video walks you through the basics of when and why to cite sources. Be sure to ask your professor which citation style you need to use for your assignments.