When writing research papers students are often required to create a "resources used" page, or a "bibliography," or a "list of works cited." This side bar discusses what the underlying reasons are for these requirements and what some of these terms mean.
Including a list of works cited in your research paper enables anyone reading your paper to go back and check what you claim as a source for your various research points. It provides a list of resources for others to use if they found your paper interesting or useful. And it provides a means for you to give credit to authors for their ideas and work, to show clearly that you are giving credit where credit is due. This is important of course to avoid charges of plagiarism.
There are several styles used for citing sources, but the two main styles used at STCC are the Modern Language Association style (MLA) and the American Psychological Association style (APA). Other syles that you might encounter in your academic career include the Chicago Style and the Bluebook style (used mainly for legal material). Typically, a citation in just about any style will include: the author(s) name(s); the title of the resource used; the year of publication; the place of publication. If you are citing a Web site, your citation additionally will typically include the url address of the Web site, and the date you viewed the Web site.
Some definitions [all from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition]:
Bibliography: a list of works referred to in a text or consulted by the author in the production of the work.
Citation: (not from Webster's) the elements needed to identify the source of information used. Usually included in a citation is the author's name, the title of the resource, place of publishing, and year of publishing.
Plagiarism: to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own without crediting the source; to commit literary theft, to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source. You can view STCC's Academic Honesty Policy here.
|Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association||REF BF 76.7 P83 2009|
|The Elements of Style||PE 1408 .S772 (2005)|
|Evidence Explained: Citing History Sources from Artifacts to Cyberspace||REF D 5 .M55 2007|
|Pocket Style Manual. 5th Edition||REF PE1408.H26 2009|
In 2009, the American Psychological Association changed the format used for citing materials. The biggest issue is the addition of the digitial object identifier (doi) that has appeared on many scholarly/academic articles since 2008. The APA says that if you can't find the doi, provide the URL of the journal's home page, rather than the database from which you retrieved it.
A complete system to manage your entire research process, including a system for creating lists of works cited in different styles, like MLA or APA. (Note: Zotero only works with the Mozilla browser).
KEEP TRACK OF YOUR RESOURCES!
When accumulating the resources you will use for your paper, keep track of the information you will need to cite that resource if in fact you use it in your paper. That means, write down the information typically used in a citation (see left sidebar), for example, the author(s)' name(s), complete title of the resource, publisher, date, etc. Perhaps you can make and keep copies of the first pages of the resource, whether print or electronic, for easy citation later.
The reason for this tip is that if you don't keep good records, you may end up trying to re-locate that resource. This can be a time consuming, frustrating, and ultimately unsuccessul endeavor!
From the STCC Student Handbook:
Communication of knowledge and a free exchange of ideas, two essential aspects of a college community, require a fundamental standard of honesty. Students and faculty must be able to expect that thoughts and work presented for credit are the property of the person presenting them. To safeguard these principles, it is important to clarify the rules and procedures regarding academic honesty.
1. Academic dishonesty- Students must refrain from all forms of academic dishonesty including but not limited to:
2. Consequences of Academic Dishonesty.
Students who believe themselves to be unjustly accused or punished for academic honesty violations may pursue the matter through the College grievance procedure.