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The Research Process

The Five Ws of Web Site Evaluation

The 5 W's of Web site evaluation

Ask yourself these questions when you come across a web site. The 5 W's will help you determine the reliability and currency of a website.

Who: Who wrote it? If it’s an organization, is it a business, school, government agency or something else? If an individual wrote it, is he or she an expert? Is a biography of the author included?

What: What kind of information does it have? Does the information relate to your topic or help answer your question? Is the site a blog, wiki, advertisement, article, or something else?

When: When was the site created? When was the web site last updated? Try and find the copyright information on the page you are viewing.

Where: Does the web address indicate .edu, .com, .org, .gov or something else? This will help determine who created the site. Where does the information come from? Where can I look to find out more about the sponsor of the site?

Why: Why was the site created? Is the website for entertainment use, to persuade you, sell you something or inform you? Is the intention or purpose clearly stated? Why should I use this information?

The CRAAP Test

Think about these factors when evaluating a Web page (or other resource):

C = Currency

R = Relevance

A = Authority

A = Accuracy

P = Purpose

Currency: The timeliness of the Web page. If relevant, when was the information gathered? When was it posted? When was it last revised? Are links functional and up-to-date? Is there evidence of newly added information or links?

Relevance/Coverage: The uniqueness of the content and its importance for your needs. What is the depth and breadth of the information presented? Is the information unique? Is it available elsewhere, in print or electronic format? Could you find the same or better information in another source? Who is the intended audience? Does the site provide the information you need? Your overall assessment is important. Would you be comfortable using this source for a research paper?

Authority: The source of the Web page. Who is the author/creator/sponsor? Are author's credentials listed? Is the author a teacher or student of the topic? Does the author have a reputation? Is there contact information, such as an e-mail address? Has the author published works in traditional formats? Is the author affiliated with an organization? Does this organization appear to support or sponsor the page? What does the domain name/URL reveal about the source of the information, if anything? Example: .com .edu .gov .org .net

Accuracy: The reliability, truthfulness, and correctness of the informational content. Where does the information come from? Are the original sources of information listed? Can you verify any of the information in independent sources or from your own knowledge? Has the information been reviewed or refereed? Does the language or tone seem biased? Are there spelling, grammar, or other typos?

Purpose: The presence of bias or prejudice/The reason the Web site exists. Are possible biases clearly stated? Is advertising content vs. informational content easily distinguishable? Are editorials clearly labeled? Is the purpose of the page stated? Is the purpose to: inform? teach? entertain? enlighten? sell? persuade? What does the domain name/URL reveal about the source of the information, if anything? Example: .com .edu .gov .org .net

*Modified version of CRAAP Test created by Meriam Library at California State University, Chico